Gentlemen`s agreements were a widespread discriminatory tactic, which would have been more common than restrictive alliances to maintain the homogeneity of upper-class neighborhoods and suburbs in the United States.  The nature of these agreements made it extremely difficult to prove or follow them, and they were long after the U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Shelley/. Kraemer and Barrows v. Jackson.  A source indicates that the gentlemen`s agreements are “probably still in place” but that their use has declined sharply.  Differences of opinion grew as foreign manufacturers built increasingly strong cars and limited the Japanese automotive market abroad until the decisive (and surprisingly last) year of 2004. In July 2004, former JAMA President Itaru Koeda went to the press to tell them the truth – JAMA had not found a link between speed and road mortality. Koeda called for the end of the gentleman`s agreement. In the automotive industry, Japanese manufacturers have agreed that no standard vehicle would have more than 276 hp (206 kW; 280 CH); The agreement ended in 2005.  German manufacturers limit the maximum speed of high-performance sedans (berlines) and breaks to 250 km/h.   When the Suzuki Hayabusa motorcycle exceeded 310 km/h in 1999, fears of a European ban or regulatory intervention led Japanese and European manufacturers to limit to 300 km/h at the end of 1999 See list of the fastest series bikes. In 2004, growing divergences in local industry culminated at a turning point.
The former president of JAMA, Itaru Koeda, told the press in July 2004 that his organization had indeed not found a link between speed mortality and road mortality, which had fallen to 8000 per year, and that it had therefore called for an end to the agreement of 280 hp gentlemen. The gloves were now off, and Japan was able to beat its weight in terms of its motor muscle, without any problems on the international stage. Just as Nissan`s Fairlady Z was already there in 1989 to launch the electric cover, another car was waiting in the wings to mark its abolition. The car, the Honda Legend, came on the market in mid-2004 and is 300 hp. Since then, of course, many other models have followed – including the 308 hp Subaru Impreza STI, the 333 hp Nissan Skyline Coupe and the 380 hp Lexus LS460.