But for those who are not trained linguists, it can be difficult to keep up. There is a problem. There are too many at once. An excessive emphasis on context and document type can mask the fact that importance is achieved through formulations. Top-downs and bottom-ups are valid in their own way. Most translators range from macro to microlevel, from top to bottom, and take things like the nature of the document and context as a starting point for deciding the status of the translation. And this is theoretic, for the trained linguist. Translating words and sentences out of context can be useless, but it`s just as useless to try to translate without understanding how individual words, phrases, and structures control and shape the overall meaning of a text. . . .