The Bermuda Agreement

Both the United States and the United Kingdom have made the Bermuda Agreement their model bilateral agreement with other countries up to Bermuda II. The only major exception at that time was the 1966 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union, which designated Pan Am and Aeroflot as each country`s exporting airlines and left the commercial details of the service to the airlines` previous agreement. Although most other agreements followed the Bermuda I model during this period, over time they tended to contain fewer and fewer fifth and sixth freedom rights (traffic rights to and from third countries), as the greater range of aircraft made these rights less necessary. [4] The general principles of the Bermuda Agreement have also been respected by other countries, such as Canada, in its various bilateral agreements. In 1949, after joining the Canadian province, the United States signed an agreement with Canada to establish fifth right-wing freedoms to and from Gander. [4] The reader will have seen that the author is of the opinion that the answer is yes. If the principles of the final law and the Bermuda agreement agree, the plan could easily become the basis for a comprehensive international air transport agreement. Such a convention would provide for a general exchange of transit privileges between the parties and would give the overflowing nation the right to define airports and transit routes on its territory. The Convention would not establish trade routes or trade privileges, but would include the commercial principles of exploitation and transport of the Bermuda Plan and would provide that if two or more nations party to the Agreement were to decide to exchange trade privileges and agree on trade routes, operations would always be conducted in accordance with the principles of the Plan. Such an agreement would lead to international trade unity, but would leave it to the nations concerned to determine with which nations and by which routes they wish to trade. Another provision could include, when adopting the agreement, the right of each nation to designate ports and airways open to international commercial traffic if they are operated in accordance with the principles of the plan, therefore eliminating the need for subsequent special agreements on ports of entry and routes.