The implementation of executive agreements increased considerably after 1939. Prior to 1940, the U.S. Senate had ratified 800 treaties and presidents had concluded 1,200 executive agreements; From 1940 to 1989, during World War II and the Cold War, presidents signed nearly 800 treaties, but concluded more than 13,000 executive treaties. In addition, there are many collections of free online contracts that focus on a particular jurisdiction, region or conditions. Depending on the type of contract you are researching, it may be quicker to use one of these online contract collections as a starting point rather than following the conventional four-step contract search process. This is particularly the case with major multilateral treaties and certain types of bilateral agreements, particularly bilateral investment agreements. Most executive agreements were concluded in accordance with a treaty or an act of Congress. However, presidents have sometimes reached executive agreements to achieve goals that would not find the support of two-thirds of the Senate. For example, after the outbreak of World War II, but before the Americans entered the conflict, President Franklin D. Roosevelt negotiated an executive agreement that gave the United Kingdom 50 obsolete destroyers in exchange for 99-year leases on some British naval bases in the Atlantic. A treaty is an international agreement established in writing and by international law between two or more sovereign states, whether inscribed in a single instrument or in two or more related acts. Treaties have many names: conventions, agreements, pacts, pacts, charters and statutes, among others.
The choice of name has no legal value. Contracts can generally be categorized into one of two main categories: bilateral (between two countries) and multilateral (between three or more countries). The U.S. Constitution does not explicitly give a president the power to enter into executive agreements. However, it may be authorized to do so by Congress or may do so on the basis of its foreign relations management authority. Despite questions about the constitutionality of executive agreements, the Supreme Court ruled in 1937 that they had the same force as treaties. As executive agreements are made on the authority of the president-in-office, they do not necessarily bind his successors. The four stages of the contract search process are described below. The sources you consult vary depending on whether the treaty is bilateral or multilateral and whether or not the United States is a party to the treaty. Executive agreement, an agreement between the United States and a foreign government that is less formal than a treaty and is not subject to the constitutional requirement for ratification by two-thirds of the U.S. Senate. If you need help with contract research, visit the Help for Research page on the Georgetown University Law Library website.
Or contact the Law Library`s international and foreign law department by phone (202-662-4195) or email (firstname.lastname@example.org). Students at the Georgetown Law Centre can arrange a one-on-one research consultation with a librarian.